Participation Frameworks and Flash Games

For my digital artefact, I will be posting TikToks of nostalgic flash games and my memory of them. I will also be posting some videos where I will be using my analytical framework to analyse this media text.

young women avatar using smartphones devices vector illustration design on Vecteezy, [Click for source]

Scholar Raessen created the analytical frameworks of the types and techniques of participation, in his work ‘Computer Games as Participatory Media Culture’. Below I will utilising these frameworks to explore the participatory elements of my project.

Techniques of Participation


Multimediality is tied to technological convergence and digitisation that have made “it possible to merge the ability to transfer sound, pictures, and the written word with the capability to do all that simultaneously” (ebrary, n.d.). My project will consist of TikTok videos that merge musical audio, the visuals of gameplay videos and myself speaking, and text in the captions and on my blog.

Photo by Obi Onyeador on Unsplash, [Click for source]


Virtual reality is ‘‘an event or entity that is real in effect but not in fact’’ (Heim, 1993, p. 109). My project will be showing my experience of playing old flash games and analysing flash to my audience, presented on the online platform of TikTok (and my blog). This digitally produced content can have factual and real-world impacts on my audience who can relive the nostalgia of flash games.

Futurism Virtual Reality Game Flat Illustration Vector Free Vector from Vecteezy, [Click for source]


A key part of networking and having an online presence is interactivity, as “social networking involves interaction among different individuals in an online social setting.” (Shipps & Philips, 2013). My users can interact with my content through features on TikTok such as likes, comments, and shares. I can also prompt these actions from my users by posing questions in my captions asking them to reflect on the nostalgia of these flash games and their childhood.

young woman with laptop like speech bubble chatting design vector illustration on Vecteezy, [Click for source]


Through the development of my online presence and content, I can connect with users across the internet and the globe. The primary form of connectivity I have with my audience is through the social media platform TikTok and my blog. It’s in these spaces that I can connect and interact with users who are interested in my niche of flash games, share my own experiences, and listen to the experiences of others.

Young woman having video conference with colleagues. Free Vector from Vecteezy, [Click for source]

Types of Participation


[Click for source]


  • Ebrary, n.d., Multimediality-Unimediality, Ebrary, viewed 11 September 2021, <>
  • Heim, M. 1993, The metaphysics of virtual reality, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Joyce, M. 1995, Siren shapes: Exploratory and constructive hypertexts. In Of two minds. Hypertext pedagogy and poetics, pp. 41, Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press
  • Raessens, J. 2005, Computer games as participatory media culture, In J. Raessens & J. Goldstein (Eds.), Handbook of computer game studies (pp. 373-388). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
  • Shipps, B. & Phillips, B. 2013, Social Networks, Interactivity and Satisfaction: Assessing Social-Technical Behavioural Factors as an Extension to Technology Acceptance, Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research , Volume 8, Issue 1, viewed 11 September 2021, <>

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Blog Post Updated: 13th October 2021

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